C1S and C2S
Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.
 
Calendar
To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.
 
Caliper
Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc). Device on a sheet-fed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.
 
Camera-ready Copy
Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used, also called finished art and reproduction copy.
 
Camera Service
Business using a process camera to make Photostats, halftones, plates and other elements for printing, also called prep service and trade camera service.
 
Carbonless Paper
Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.
 
Carload
Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL.
 
Carton
Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight.
 
Case
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a casebound book.
 
Case Bind
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather, also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.
 
Cast-coated Paper
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.
 
Catalog Paper
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and magazines.
 
Chain Dot
Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because midtone dots touch at two points, so look like links in a chain. Generic term for any midtone dots whose corners touch.
 
Chain Lines
Widely spaced lines in laid paper. Blemishes on printed images caused by tracking.
 
Chalking
Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed images look dusty, also called crocking.
 
Check Copy
Production copy of a publication verified by the customer as printed, finished and bound correctly. One set of gathered book signatures approved by the customer as ready for binding.
 
Choke
Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline, also called shrink and skinny.
 
Chrome
Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems to neutral grey, also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation.
 
Close Up
A mark used to indicate closing space between characters or words, usually used in proofing stages.
 
CMYK
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.
 
Coarse Screen
Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimeter).
 
Coated Paper
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.
 
Collate
To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
 
Collating Marks
Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage.
 
Color Balance
Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the colors of the original scene or photograph.
 
Color Blanks
Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type, also called shells.
 
Color Break
In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one ink color stops and another begins. Also called break for color.
 
Color Cast
Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image.
 
Color Control Bar
Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain, also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar.
 
Color Correct
To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.
 
Color Curves
Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colours, also called HLS and HVS tables.
 
Color Electronic Prepress System
Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and software designed for image assembly, color correction, retouching and output onto proofing materials, film or printing plates, abbreviated CEPS.
 
Color Gamut
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device such as a computer screen or system such as four-color process printing.
 
Color Key
Brand name for an overlay color proof, sometimes used as a generic term for any overlay color proof.
 
Color Model
Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array of colors found in nature.
 
Color Separation
Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four halftone negatives. The product resulting from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing, also called separation.
 
Color Sequence
Order in which inks are printed, also called laydown sequence and rotation.
 
Color Shift
Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.
 
Color Transparency
Film (transparent) used as art to perform color separations.
 
Comb Bind
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper is also known as plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name).
 
Commercial Printer
Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazine.
 
Complementary Flat(s)
The second or additional flat(s) used when making composite film or for two or more burns on one printing plate.
 
Composite Art
Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colors appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays. Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that indicate color breaks.
 
Composite Film
Film made by combining images from two or more pieces of working film onto one film for making one plate.
 
Composite Proof
Proof of colour separations in position with graphics and type is also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.
 
Composition
In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.
 
Comprehensive Dummy
Simulation of a printed piece complete with type, graphics and colors. Also called color comprehensive and comp.
 
Condition
To keep paper in the press room for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature will be equal to the pressroom. This is also called cure, mature and season.
 
Contact Plate maker
Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame used to make contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and plates. This is also called plate maker and vacuum frame.
 
Continuous-tone Copy
All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated con tone.
 
Contrast
Degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.
 
Converter
To make products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays.
 
Copy board
Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.
 
Cover
Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.
 
Coverage
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
 
Cover Paper
Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.
 
Crash
Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a book to increase strength of binding is also called as gauze, mull and scrim.
 
Creep
Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages is also called feathering, out push, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
 
Crop Marks
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced are also called cut as marks and tic marks.
 
Crossover
Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page is also called as bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
 
Cure
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
 
Customer Service Representative
Employee of a printer, service bureau, separator or other business who coordinates projects and keeps customers informed. Abbreviated CSR.
 
Cutoff
Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper.
 
Cut Sizes
Paper sizes that are used with office machines and small presses.
 
Cutting Machine
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.
 
Cutting Die
Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.
 
CWT
Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100.
 
Cyan
One of the four process colours is also known as process blue.?
 

 

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